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problem solving skill Ashbury College

Categorized among the early Shakespearean comedies, The Taming of the Shrew (c. 1590-91) has become one of the playwright's most controversial works. While Elizabethan audiences may have viewed the piece with amusement and approval, the story of the spirited, rebellious, and sharp-witted Katherina (Kate), forced by her father to marry the equally exuberant and willful Petruchio, generally fails to correspond to a modern sensibility of the proper bond between husband and wife. The tactics by which Petruchio transforms Katherina's obstinacy into obedience, as well as the drama's undercurrent of violence and cruelty, are perceived by many critics as unsettling in a play principally concerned with marriage. Whereas nineteenth-century commentators dismissed the drama as a simple farce of little serious consequence, modern scholars find much in problem solving skill Ashbury College the play that merits serious study. Many critics have endeavored to explicate the troubling elements of the play, and are particularly interested in Katherina's apparent submission to her husband in the play's final act. Summarizing its enigmatic appeal, Oxford Shakespeare editor H. J. Oliver (1982) observes the ways in which Shakespeare transformed and improved upon his numerous sources for The Taming of the Shrew to fashion a piece that, despite certain limitations, fascinates with its intriguing subject: the clash of sexes. Contemporary character-based studies of The Taming of the Shrew have almost invariably focused on the drama's central and dominating figures, Katherina and Petruchio. This volatile relationship is the subject of Ruth Nevo's (1980) appraisal, which emphasizes the dynamics of problem solving skill Ashbury College, “sexual battle” that drive the cheap essay writing service lord wandsworth college play. Nevo dissects the fundamental subject of The Taming of the Shrew —locating a suitable mate for the “wild, intractable and shrewish daughter of Baptista”—and the conflict of problem solving skill Ashbury College, wills that ensues. Problem solving skill Queen Annes School! Analyzing Petruchio's verbal strategies in wooing and problem solving skill queen annes school, taming his wife, Nevo observes that Katherina largely responds to his cues, and suggests that the play steadily informs us that by its final act Kate is truly in love with her husband. Other critics have taken a wider, social view of Katherina's taming. Velvet D. What not to write in a college essay Macromedia University for Media and Communication! Pearson (1990) sees the process of admissions essay help ics international community school, subduing Baptista's eldest daughter on stage as a barometer of changing social attitudes toward women from the nineteenth to twentieth centuries, ranging from a traditional view of Katherina and Petruchio as two individuals learning to love one another to a more modern vision that champions Katherina's assertiveness and elsevier review appleby college, intellectual freedom. problem solving skill Ashbury College! Harriet A. Deer (1991), while acknowledging that the play presents a strongly chauvinist subtext, argues that in The Taming of the Shrew Shakespeare creatively undercut conventional stereotypes associated with the shrew and braggart figures, which provide the theatrical basis for Katherina's and Petruchio's characters, in order to reveal the deeply patriarchal suppositions of what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication, Elizabethan marriage. Despite its potentially disturbing representation of gender conflict, The Taming of the Shrew continues to be one of Shakespeare's most frequently performed comedies. Charles Isherwood's evaluates the what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication 1999 Public Theater production staged in New York City's Central Park, directed by Mel Shapiro. Isherwood finds this performance, which primarily appealed to low humor with an problem solving skill Ashbury College, unyielding silliness and multitude of crude jokes, an affront to the emotional complexities of Shakespeare's characters and story. Problem solving skill Queen Annes School! While Isherwood admires Allison Janney's outstanding Katherina, he laments Shapiro's overall disregard for the emotional subtleties of the how to write an scientific article abbey college cambridge drama in favor of eye-catching comic additions. Similarly, Ben Brantley (1999) finds Richard Rees's 1999 Williamstown Theater Festival production of The Taming of the Shrew disappointing. For Brantley, one of the saving elements of admissions essay help ics international community school, this “fast, furious, and overstuffed interpretation” was Bebe Neuwirth's convincingly performed Katherina. Elysa Gardner (2000) praises director Victoria Liberatori's musically enhanced Taming of the Shrew set in a retro, 1970s style and performed by the Princeton Repertory Theater in 2000. Gardner contends that this seemingly odd setting offered an excellent commentary on the play by problem solving skill Ashbury College, evoking the sexual revolution and problem solving skill Ashbury College, the women's rights movement. Lastly, D. J. R. Bruckner (2001) comments on what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication, Liz Shipman's use of the critically contentious induction scene that opens The Taming of the Shrew in her 2001 production with the King County Shakespeare Company. Bruckner finds nearly all of problem solving skill queen annes school, Shipman's directorial interpretations beneficial to problem solving skill Ashbury College the drama and approves of the problem solving skill Ashbury College ensemble performance. Recent thematic criticism regarding The Taming of the Shrew has generally focused on problem solving skill Ashbury College, two key topics: transformation and the socially dictated roles of problem solving skill Ashbury College, women. Jeanne Addison Roberts (1983) explores the theme of metamorphosis in the play, beginning with its induction scene and the mock conversion of the drunken tinker Christopher Sly into a nobleman. Roberts goes on to what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication study the problem solving skill Ashbury College pervasive imagery of transformation in the play, such as the emblematic transformation of a married couple into a single entity represented by a hermaphrodite, and the symbolic metamorphosis of humans into animals—particularly the association between woman and horse. problem solving skill Ashbury College! Approaching the transformation theme from problem solving skill Ashbury College, a sharply contrasting perspective, Barry Weller (1992) studies the steps to write a persuasive essay auston institute of management problematic relationship between The Taming of the Shrew 's induction and main plot. Noting that Christopher Sly's dream induction to cheap essay writing service lord wandsworth college the drama is rife with allusions to theatricality, Weller suggests that Katherina's ostensible metamorphosis from assertive shrew to servile wife, when viewed through this frame, should be regarded with at least a degree of skepticism. problem solving skill Ashbury College! Shifting to issues of gender in The Taming of the Shrew, Erika Gottlieb (1986) considers Katherina's rebellious actions in the play as a kind of ideological assault on the Great Chain of Being, a traditional hierarchical structure that dominated early modern thinking. While Katherina rails against her social placement below man in this scheme, Gottlieb observes that Shakespeare's final statement on the matter remains ambivalent. Gary Schneider (2002) presents a feminist-materialist assessment of the social world depicted in The Taming of the Shrew. Steps to write a persuasive essay Auston Institute of Management! Schneider maintains that in the play, the theater becomes a site of “social control” where Katherina becomes the mouthpiece for patriarchal rhetoric. According to Schneider, Katherina's final speech is meant to act as a kind of sermon that encourages the female audience members to exhibit proper behavior. SOURCE: Oliver, H. J. Introduction to The Oxford Shakespeare: “The Taming of the Shrew,” edited by H. J. problem solving skill Ashbury College! Oliver, pp. 1-76. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982. [ In the following excerpted introduction to The Taming of the Shrew, Oliver surveys the play's sources, style, themes, structure, and characterization. ] THE STORY OF CHRISTOPHER SLY. No one source for the ‘Induction’ of The Taming of the Shrew has yet been found, and none need be sought: Shakespeare may well have first heard at his mother's knee some version of the universal tale of how a sleeper or drunken man, when he awoke to find himself dressed in what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication fine clothes, was deceived into believing that he was really a lord, or of some such high rank, and problem solving skill Ashbury College, that what he thought to be his memories of problem solving skill Ashbury College, his earlier life were delusions. How to write an scientific article Abbey College Cambridge! The form of the problem solving skill Ashbury College story most widely known today is that in The Arabian Nights, where the Caliph Haroun al Raschid plays the trick on Abu Hassan (and although The Arabian Nights as such was not known in Europe until the what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication eighteenth century, it is perhaps worth recalling that the stories in problem solving skill Ashbury College it may have been collected as early as the fourteenth and in origin may go back many centuries before that). Discussion of Shakespeare's acquiring of this fable was put on steps to write a persuasive essay auston institute of management, the wrong track years ago when Thomas Warton stated in his History of English Poetry (1774-81) that Shakespeare found the problem solving skill Ashbury College story in a collection of prose tales made by what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication, Richard Edwards in 1570. Then in the papers of the Shakespeare Society in 1845, H. G. Norton, from loose printed leaves in his possession, published such a tale, calling it ‘The Waking Mans Dreame’ and admissions essay help ics international community school, assuming that it came from the book by elsevier review appleby college, Edwards, of which no copy had ever been seen. In 1913 A. E. Thiselton demonstrated that the tale printed by Norton supposedly from Edwards's (hypothetical) volume was in elsevier review appleby college fact one of a collection of anecdotes, Admirable Events, translated by S. Du Verger from the French of J. P. Camus and problem solving skill Ashbury College, not published until 1639; but this demonstration went almost unnoticed and the point had to be made again by Charles C. problem solving skill Ashbury College! Mish in 1951. 1 The Edwards collection is apparently a ‘ghost’—but it haunts many scholarly discussions of Shakespeare's sources written even since 1951. It is, then, still necessary to say that no printed version of the story has been found earlier than Shakespeare's except the one in Latin by problem solving skill queen annes school, Heuterus, in De Rebus Burgundicis, 1584, which Shakespeare is not likely to have known: it was not translated into French, by problem solving skill Ashbury College, Goulart, until about 1600, or into English until 1607, by Edward Grimeston. Grimeston's, the version printed by Geoffrey Bullough in elsevier review appleby college his Narrative and Dramatic Sources of how to write an scientific article abbey college cambridge, Shakespeare, 2 tells how Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, found ‘a certaine Artisan’ very drunk in the street, had him carried home to the palace, dressed in fine clothes, conducted to elsevier review appleby college the Mass, waited on there, taken hunting and steps to write a persuasive essay auston institute of management, hawking, and entertained with ‘a pleasant Comedie’, before being carried back, drunk again, to where he was found. The tale is told in a completely different tone from Shakespeare's, to draw moral lessons about the vanity of state—but one suspects that if it were not safely dated 1607, somebody could long since have ‘proved’ by what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication, verbal parallels that Shakespeare used it. Perhaps some day an earlier translation will be found. It may be difficult to name a source for the Sly scenes, but it is not difficult to appreciate them. From the moment of the entry of Sly and the Hostess—an opening sure to capture the attention of an audience, particularly if Sly reels on to problem solving skill Ashbury College the stage as if he has been thrown out of the alehouse—the pace does not slacken. The tinker's drunken recalcitrance is caught in cheap essay writing service lord wandsworth college just a few sentences; his intellectual limitations are well established by his references to Richard Conqueror and Saint Jeronimy and by his fondness for the catch phrases from The Spanish Tragedy. problem solving skill Ashbury College! Within a few minutes the Lord and his train have come on, and their knowledgeable discussion of the hounds, in technically correct language—but in only fourteen lines—has made the necessary contrast with the peasant and has also added to the already convincing details of life in a ‘real’ countryside. The plan to deceive Sly is outlined in the firmest of language—noticeable particularly are the precise active verbs, ‘take him up’, ‘carry him’, ‘hang it round’, ‘balm his foul head’, and so on—and the audience is steps to write a persuasive essay auston institute of management eager to see what will happen. Not many plays have openings as competent, theatrically, as this: it is, albeit in a completely different tone, comparable with the magnificent beginning of the much later Othello. The entry of the players provides further variety in stage ‘action’ before plans are worked out both for their share in the tricking of Sly and for the share of the page who is to be Sly's wife. How to write an scientific article Abbey College Cambridge! The exchange about Soto makes a private joke with the audience and problem solving skill Ashbury College, so helps to maintain its feeling of problem solving skill Ashbury College, complicity, in cheap essay writing service lord wandsworth college however small a way. problem solving skill Ashbury College! Sly is brought forward again, ‘aloft’, and the interest now is in the psychological changes as he is faced with the new situation. The first mood, after he wakes calling ‘For God's sake, a pot of small ale’, is the surliness, the truculence that has already been seen: ‘call not me “honour” nor “lordship”. I ne'er drank sack in my life … Ne'er ask me what raiment I'll wear …’ and problem solving skill Ashbury College, so on. Elsevier review Appleby College! Surliness is problem solving skill Ashbury College succeeded by plain anger, that he should be made a victim of what he naturally assumes to be their mockery of him: ‘What, would you make me mad? Am not I Christopher Sly … ?’ (and there follows the sequence of local allusions, to ‘Burton-heath’ and Marian Hacket and Wincot, which certainly builds up ‘atmosphere’, even if Shakespeare is amusing himself at the same time). Then there is a period while the others talk at Sly, and problem solving skill Ashbury College, he remains silent and presumably perplexed; when he does speak, it is to announce his decision to make the best of it and enjoy both the small ale (he is problem solving skill Ashbury College still, of course, continually giving himself away) and the company of his ‘lady’. As Hazlitt delightedly—and delightfully—put it, ‘we have a great predilection’ for him. 3. Detailed comment would be superfluous on Sly's guarded dialogue with the servants, or his blunder over the aristocratic way to address a wife (‘“Al'ce madam”, or “Joan madam”? … Madam wife, they say …’) or his willingness to watch the comedy to be played before him, though he is none too sure what a comedy is. There is, however, some need for comment on what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication, the search for ‘meaning’ in the Sly section, and on its dramatic function. Whereas once there would have been general agreement with F. A. Marshall's opinion that The Taming of the Shrew ‘is the one of Shakespeare's plays most devoid of problem solving skill Ashbury College, serious interest, not excepting the Comedy of Errors ', 4 it has become orthodoxy to claim to find in the Induction the same ‘theme’ as is to be found in both the Bianca and the Katherine-Petruchio plots of the elsevier review appleby college main play and to take it for granted that identity of theme is a merit and ‘justifies’ the introduction of Sly. Such a claim is seen in how to write an scientific article abbey college cambridge its extreme form in the statement that the three segments of the play ‘are all linked in idea because all contain discussion of the relations of the sexes in marriage’. 5 So do Othello, and Hamlet, and Macbeth, and even King Lear. The situation is not saved by the statements that The Shrew deals with ‘different ways of wooing and holding a wife’ and portrays ‘different kinds of wives and husbands. The Shrew becomes thereby a drama with more social and intellectual substance than The Comedy of Errors, but in presenting shrewishness and preaching morality it resembles that play.’ 6 What The Shrew has to say about wooing a wife can be—and in the play itself is—put in a few sentences; and if one were to read the comedy—or The Comedy of Errors or for that matter any early Shakespearian comedy—for its ‘social and intellectual substance’ or to see what it preaches, then—if Dr Johnson's famous phrase about reading the novels of Samuel Richardson for the story may be adapted—‘your impatience would be so much fretted that you would hang yourself’. If, as Meredith said in his Essay on Comedy, the problem solving skill Ashbury College test of true comedy is that it should awaken thoughtful laughter, probably The Taming of the Shrew qualifies—but only just. It is also debatable whether discussion is much advanced by the more widely held theories that the Induction, the Bianca story, and the taming form a unified play because each deals with ‘assumptions about identity’ and ‘assumptions about personality’. 7 An alternative version is that the problem solving skill Ashbury College plots are all based on ‘supposes’—the ‘counterfeit supposes’ of problem solving skill Ashbury College, 5.1.106, with the elsevier review appleby college implied reference to Gascoigne's Supposes, the how to write an scientific article abbey college cambridge source of the Bianca plot. 8 Such theories seem to derive from problem solving skill queen annes school, D. problem solving skill Ashbury College! A. Stauffer's suggestion that the play demonstrates that people can become—or, indeed, are—what others think they are or treat them as being. Sly is compared with Katherine: ‘there is something deeper than humor, however, in Petruchio's calling Katherine affable, modest, and mild: in the outcome, thinking makes it so’. 9 Is it too late in the day to insist that it is not ‘thinking’ that makes it so—neither Petruchio's nor Katherine's—and that Sly does not become what others pretend him to be? The terms used in all these interpretations are far too wide: the sense in which Sly (for the minute) ‘assumes a new personality’ is quite different from the sense in which Kate is thought to problem solving skill Ashbury College assume one. Admissions essay help ICS International Community School! Does she in fact ever assume one? Perhaps she merely learns that in certain circumstances certain kinds of behaviour do not work. Bianca, of course, does not assume a new personality at steps to write a persuasive essay auston institute of management, all: Lucentio finally sees her in her true colours, as the how to write an scientific article abbey college cambridge audience, if it has any acuity or theatrical experience, will have predicted from the first scene in which she appears. Assumptions about elsevier review appleby college identity and assumptions about personality may be wildly different things. And it is simply not true that ‘Sly's story is in effect “finished” when, like Kate, he has been persuaded to problem solving skill queen annes school accept a new personality’. 10 He remains in the play after that, to watch a comedy—and not only to watch it but also to comment on it: ‘'Tis a very excellent piece of work, madam lady: would 'twere done!’—and Sly's attitude to the play within the play is crucial to the attitude to it of the audience in the ‘real’ theatre. The Sly Induction does not so much announce the theme of the enclosed stories as establish their tone. There are many reasons for telling a story indirectly or putting it within a framework—as, for example, a play can be enclosed within a play. Sometimes, as in Defoe, the main tale is wrapped up in discussion about the narrator, and how to write an scientific article abbey college cambridge, the author's knowledge of the veracity of the narrator and so on, as a kind of camouflage, with the aim of causing a reader to problem solving skill Ashbury College quibble, if at all, about what does not matter so that the main story will remain unchallenged. It is admissions essay help ics international community school a method of making the enclosed story more realistic, more credible. Something similar, although far more sophisticated, is seen in the novels of, say, Joseph Conrad; if Conrad tells us about Marlow who helps with others to tell us about Lord Jim (or Kurtz, in Heart of cheap essay writing service lord wandsworth college, Darkness ), it is, partly, that we may believe more readily in the ‘truth’ of the story and also that attention may be given to the analysis of the complex moral issues that the story raises: Marlow's opinion, among others, is problem solving skill Ashbury College accepted, rejected or modified by the reader only problem solving skill Ashbury College, because he for the admissions essay help ics international community school minute accepts the ‘reality’ of both Marlow and Jim. The moral or intellectual debate in a sense presupposes the reality of the problem solving skill Ashbury College characters. Elsevier review Appleby College! Similarly, in a less complex and indeed unsophisticated use of the technique, a film or play will start with an ‘I remember’ followed by a dramatization of what is problem solving skill Ashbury College remembered—the aim again being greater conviction. More often, however, the ‘enclosing’ technique works in problem solving skill Ashbury College exactly the opposite way. If in a film the characters go to see a film, the film they see is quite remote: it is at one further move from the ‘reality’ of the audience in the ‘real’ cinema. Similarly if a play on a small scale is put within a play, what happens in the enclosed play is not ‘believed’ at steps to write a persuasive essay auston institute of management, all. Examples would be ‘The Mousetrap’ in Hamlet and ‘Pyramus and Thisbe’ in A Midsummer Night's Dream —both of which, of course, are further ‘distanced’ by other methods and notably by a deliberately artificial and old fashioned style. Since, however, these are short and in some ways special, it may be better to look for a parallel to the technique of The Shrew in a play in which the enclosed story is the longer and the enclosing story apparently no more than a way of introducing it. Just such a play is George Peele's The Old Wives Tale, the exact date of which is uncertain but which undoubtedly belongs within a few years of The Shrew. Problem solving skill Queen Annes School! In Peele's play as in problem solving skill Ashbury College Shakespeare's the audience is introduced in the Induction to realistically drawn rustics who are contrasted with more aristocratic and what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication, intellectual types; and Peele's delightfully down-to-earth Old Wife, Madge, begins to tell a typical old wife's tale which is then, as it were, acted out what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication for her by the players, with all the inconsecutiveness and the crossed lines of the story as it would be if she told it. And, of course, we do not ‘believe’ a word of it, and have been told not to believe it—and enjoy it the more. The Taming of the admissions essay help ics international community school Shrew is in some ways very similar: the enclosed story is problem solving skill Ashbury College not told by an uninformed and unimaginative rustic but it is put on to amuse one; we ‘believe’ in Sly but do not really believe in Lucentio, or Bianca—or Petruchio. The phenomenon of problem solving skill Ashbury College, theatrical illusion is itself being laughed at; and the play within the play makes Sly drowsy and probably soon sends him to sleep. Are we to let that play ‘preach morality’ to us or look in it for ‘social and intellectual substance’? The drunken tinker may be believed in as one believes in cheap essay writing service lord wandsworth college any realistically presented character; but we cannot ‘believe’ in something that is not even mildly interesting to him. The play within the problem solving skill Ashbury College play has been presented only after all the preliminaries have encouraged us to take it as a farce (meaning by problem solving skill Ashbury College, that not slapstick, but a broader kind of comedy not involving ‘engagement’ with the characters). We have been warned. Why, then, having begun the Induction, might Shakespeare have decided not to continue with it to the end; or—what is for this purpose much the same question—if he did at first continue with it, in a form of which A Shrew gives us some idea, albeit inadequate, why might he have changed his mind and problem solving skill Ashbury College, decided to cut it short? There are, in problem solving skill Ashbury College the first place, some purely practical, theatrical, considerations that may have weighed with him. It has been suggested, for example, that there was a staging problem because the presence of Sly and the ‘presenters’ ‘aloft’ made the use of the ‘upper stage’ for another purpose difficult; and the raised acting area does seem to be needed again in 5.1 when, as F1 has it, the ‘ Pedant lookes out of the window ’ (l. 2397). 11 There may be something in this, although not enough is certain about the ‘upper stage’ in problem solving skill Ashbury College Elizabethan theatres for the argument to problem solving skill Ashbury College carry full conviction; it was not necessarily impossible to keep Sly's party well away from the ‘window’ required for the Pedant. (Conceivably the form of the Induction in A Shrew, which has Sly on problem solving skill Ashbury College, the main stage throughout, represents some intermediate, experimental version that tried to get over the problem solving skill Ashbury College problem of the differing uses of the area ‘aloft’; alternatively, … the compilers of A Shrew—if they were thinking that the text they compiled might be acted by, for example, touring companies—may have had in mind the limitations of stages and theatres other than those for cheap essay writing service lord wandsworth college, which the Shakespeare play was written.) The staging would not seem to have been so difficult as to make necessary by itself the decision not to continue the Sly story after Act I Scene I. A greater difficulty was, perhaps, casting, although again it cannot be said that an Elizabethan company could not have coped with the problems of the full framework (including in that phrase both the carrying through of Sly's comments as in A Shrew and cheap essay writing service lord wandsworth college, the alternative possibility of leaving him and how to write an scientific article abbey college cambridge, others, even though they remain silent, in view of the audience throughout). If the actors of Sly, the Lord, and problem solving skill Ashbury College, the Page in the Induction are not available to play other roles, then The Taming of the Shrew requires a cast of problem solving skill Ashbury College, sixteen to play named parts (plus a few odd servants), of whom at least four would be boys (the Page, Kate, Bianca, the Widow)—five if a boy played Biondello; and it may have been necessary—if the company could not rise to this number—to introduce some doubling, not merely by problem solving skill Ashbury College, ending the Sly story when it does end in the Folio text but also by getting him and his fellow presenters off the stage altogether. 12 One caveat may be entered: it has perhaps been too readily assumed that because the Lord remains on problem solving skill Ashbury College, the stage with Sly in A Shrew, he must remain with Sly, if Sly remains, in The Shrew. This is not so. The Lord could leave the Induction for the last time at 2.114 and be available for problem solving skill Ashbury College, Vincentio or any other role thereafter, unless he is made to be the problem solving skill queen annes school ‘Messenger’ of Induction 2.125.1 (itself involving an how to write an scientific article abbey college cambridge, almost impossibly rapid change of costume) and also the ‘1. Man. ’ who is one of the ‘Presenters’ still watching the play at the end of 1.1. 13 If these two very minor roles are given to a minor actor or hired man, then only Sly and problem solving skill queen annes school, the boy-Page-‘wife’ are being ‘wasted’ if they are kept on problem solving skill Ashbury College, stage; but certainly if they are removed from the view of the audience, ‘Sly’ can play the Pedant later, and problem solving skill Ashbury College, the boy can play the what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication Widow in problem solving skill Ashbury College the final scene. Problem solving skill Queen Annes School! 14 (Perhaps it should be added—in view of some rather wild theorizing about Sly's ‘dream’—that the actor playing Sly cannot conceivably play Petruchio if the Folio text is adhered to; Sly must ‘sit and marke’, at least for a while, and the very first thing he is required to problem solving skill Ashbury College mark is the elsevier review appleby college entrance of problem solving skill Ashbury College, Petruchio. 15 ) William Ringler's analysis of The Two Gentlemen of elsevier review appleby college, Verona, however, has suggested that Shakespeare as a young dramatist did not always use his actors economically, and has shown that he probably could count on twelve adult actors and problem solving skill Ashbury College, four boys if he really needed them. It may therefore be wiser to look beyond the steps to write a persuasive essay auston institute of management casting, as well as the stage, for explanations of the dramatist's final preference for the problem solving skill queen annes school ‘incomplete’ framework and to consider the possibility that the final form of the play is in problem solving skill Ashbury College fact the better for aesthetic reasons. If what has been argued earlier in this Introduction is correct, the cheap essay writing service lord wandsworth college main purpose of the Induction was to set the tone for the what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication play-within-the-play—in particular, to present the story of Kate and her sister as a none-too-serious comedy put on to divert a drunken tinker. The artificial style of the beginning of 1.1 is perhaps further indication that we are not expected to become too involved in the Lucentio—Bianca—disguises plot; we are told that it more or less put Sly to sleep; and problem solving skill Ashbury College, only then are we invited to watch also Petruchio's campaign to tame the shrew. As that tale goes on and especially when Kate is introduced, it gradually changes key and it does become, for a while, more realistic and convincing (and an problem solving skill Ashbury College, attempt will be made later to justify this claim); but it never for long loses its basically farcical character, and what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication, it ends, perfectly logically for a farce, with the shrew not only tamed but also prepared to instruct the untamed wives on the social desirability of tameness. How to write an scientific article Abbey College Cambridge! That last scene has been taken literally by, for problem solving skill Ashbury College, example, G. Admissions essay help ICS International Community School! I. problem solving skill Ashbury College! Duthie, who wrote that ‘What Shakespeare emphasizes here is the foolishness of problem solving skill Ashbury College, trying to destroy order’. 16 He can take such a view, however, only admissions essay help ics international community school, because for him the Induction is finally irrelevant (indeed, in this discussion he does not so much as mention its existence); for him, all the what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication hints about the nature of steps to write a persuasive essay auston institute of management, theatrical illusion have been in vain; because Kate is straightfaced, he believes what she has said. Others, holding that ‘the best in this kind are but shadows’, as Shakespeare was to problem solving skill Ashbury College put it later, and remembering that this particular shadow was for the problem solving skill Ashbury College amusement of how to write an scientific article abbey college cambridge, a shadow, will have their doubts. The play as it stands is, in modern jargon, ‘open-ended’—and it is made not more ‘open’ but less so by having Sly, in a final scene, convinced that he now knows how to tame a shrew and by having Sly's friend not so sure. The reintroduction of the presenters would also, as has been suggested by several modern critics, run the risk of anticlimax and, one might add, of seeming to gild the lily. One does not improve a farce by ending it with the problem solving skill Ashbury College reminder that it may have been only a farce; far better to let the audience make that judgement, if it wishes to problem solving skill Ashbury College make it. Perhaps Shakespeare first tried the play with the full Sly framework, perhaps he did not; but at least one can say that he seems to have had very good reasons for his apparent decision to leave it ‘incomplete’ as it is now in problem solving skill Ashbury College the approved text and (probably) to problem solving skill Ashbury College get Sly out of view of the audience early in the play and let them forget him—until perhaps they have left the steps to write a persuasive essay auston institute of management theatre and have time to wonder what happened to him and even, perhaps, what has happened to problem solving skill Ashbury College them. THE BIANCA SUBPLOT AND ‘SUPPOSES’ At least there is no dispute about the main source for the cheap essay writing service lord wandsworth college part of The Taming of the Shrew that deals with Bianca and problem solving skill Ashbury College, her suitors. Shakespeare even alludes to problem solving skill Ashbury College it, and paraphrases it, when he has Lucentio reveal his identity, with the words: The source was George Gascoigne's Supposes. Its title-page describes it as ‘a Comedie written in problem solving skill Ashbury College the Italian tongue by Ariosto Englished by problem solving skill Ashbury College, George Gascoygne of Grayes Inne Esquire, and there presented 1566’ (and there is an apparent record of a later private performance at admissions essay help ics international community school, Oxford, in Trinity College, in January 1582 18 ). Gascoigne was translating Ariosto's I Suppositi in the original prose version in which it was acted at Ferrara in 1509 and at the Vatican in elsevier review appleby college 1519 (although he may have known also Ariosto's rewriting of it in verse) and his translation is thought to be the first English drama in prose (it anticipates Lyly by nearly twenty years). Gascoigne's play was easily available to Shakespeare, particularly in the collections The Posies of G. problem solving skill Ashbury College! Gascoigne (1575) 19 and how to write an scientific article abbey college cambridge, The Whole Woorkes of G. Gascoigne (1587). In the Ariosto-Gascoigne story, Erostrato [Shakespeare's Lucentio], after falling in love at first sight, has enjoyed for some time a secret liaison with Polynesta [Shakespeare's Bianca], daughter of Damon [Baptista]. Erostrato is able to arrange meetings because in disguise he has been employed by Damon as a servant, Dulipo, while Erostrato's real servant Dulipo [Tranio] pretends to be the master Erostrato. problem solving skill Ashbury College! The feigned Erostrato pretends to elsevier review appleby college woo the problem solving skill Ashbury College girl, as a way of problem solving skill queen annes school, frustrating a rival suitor, the aged Cleander [Gremio]. How to write an scientific article Abbey College Cambridge! These two try to outbid each other with offers of lavish dowries; and to support his claim Erostrato persuades a travelling stranger [the Pedant] to impersonate his real father Philogano [Vincentio]. Erostrato arranges this both by pretending that because of a ducal decision it is dangerous for a Sienese to be found in problem solving skill Ashbury College Ferrara and by offering protection if the stranger will impersonate the elsevier review appleby college father. Matters come to a head when Polynesta is found to be pregnant (Shakespeare altered this, of course: he obviously wanted for his second female character one who to appearance had all the marks of the problem solving skill Ashbury College romantic heroine). Dulipo is put into a dungeon (too ‘serious’ a fate for Shakespeare's kind of admissions essay help ics international community school, comedy); from Sicily 20 arrives ‘the right Philogano the right father of the right Erostrato’, to find both that Dulipo is impersonating Erostrato and that a stranger is problem solving skill Ashbury College impersonating Erostrato's father, namely himself; but finally all is solved, and true identities revealed, and Cleander [Gremio] even discovers that Dulipo is the son he lost long ago after the battle of Otranto (and Shakespeare chose to avoid that improbability, which adds nothing of import to the story). For one character who looms large in the source but hardly affects the action—the typical parasite of classical comedy, Pasiphilo—Shakespeare found no place at problem solving skill Ashbury College, all; not did his Bianca (since she was not pregnant) need a confidant-nurse. His main addition, which perhaps he saw as an alternative to these superfluous characters, was to complicate the how to write an scientific article abbey college cambridge action by giving Bianca a third suitor, Hortensio; and then—on second thoughts, if the argument of the earlier part of this Introduction is correct—he complicated it further by having Hortensio assume the disguise of Litio to how to write an scientific article abbey college cambridge compete with Erostrato/Lucentio in disguise as Cambio. In short, he added still more ‘supposes’ to those of which Gascoigne already thought so highly that he put notes in the margin pointing them out lest the reader should miss any. 21. Gascoigne, as part of problem solving skill Ashbury College, a whole series of quibbles on his title, explained in his ‘Prologue or Argument’: ‘But understand, this our Suppose is nothing else but a mystaking or imagination of one thing for an other. For you shall see the problem solving skill Ashbury College master supposed for the servant, the servant for the cheap essay writing service lord wandsworth college master: the freeman for a slave, and the bondslave for a freeman: the stranger for a well knowen friend, and the familiar for a stranger.’ His audience is kept amused by the misconceptions of the characters—as in the Plautine comedies of which Supposes is cheap essay writing service lord wandsworth college a direct descendant 22 —and is not invited (unless it be by the strong suspicion of irony in the Prologue and the marginal notes) to wonder if it has misconceptions of its own. The interest, in short, is not in characterization but in plot, the audience watching to admissions essay help ics international community school see what happens next and problem solving skill Ashbury College, how the knots are untied. The Bianca section of Shakespeare's play, for the most part, is no different. 23 It is the kind of cheap essay writing service lord wandsworth college, comedy that he attempted also in problem solving skill Ashbury College The Comedy of cheap essay writing service lord wandsworth college, Errors, with its two pairs of identical twins (this time beginning from Plautus' Mostellaria ); he attempted it again—albeit in a very different tone—in the parts of A Midsummer Night's Dream that follow from the anointing of the wrong lover's eyes with the juice of the magic flower, so that Demetrius and Lysander are temporarily infatuated with the wrong women. How to write an scientific article Abbey College Cambridge! Being Shakespeare, he carried it off. problem solving skill Ashbury College! A reader's head sometimes spins as he tries to elsevier review appleby college remember whether Lucentio is problem solving skill Ashbury College Cambio or Litio and momentarily confuses the names of Grumio and Gremio—but in the theatre all is clear, and the pace of the action is well maintained. Indeed it is elsevier review appleby college increased towards the end and particularly in 5.1, where one seeming disaster after another falls on the bewildered Vincentio: he himself is being impersonated by how to write an scientific article abbey college cambridge, a complete stranger; his son Lucentio's servant Biondello claims never to have seen him before; the other servant Tranio, whom he brought up in his own house, claims to be Lucentio; and for all this he, Vincentio, is threatened with imprisonment, until the problem is steps to write a persuasive essay auston institute of management solved by Biondello's unfortunate entrance (unfortunate for Biondello) with Lucentio and Bianca, and his prompt exit with Tranio and the false father ‘as fast as may be’. It is all very fast indeed. Interestingly, it is in this scene that Shakespeare seems to have worked most closely from Gascoigne. He even borrows such a small detail as having the real father knock in vain at the door for problem solving skill Ashbury College, admittance to his own son's dwelling and be greeted by a stranger looking out of the window (although in Supposes the what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication stranger is a servant and not the feigned father). There are also verbal reminiscences, albeit of commonplace phrases. One example is Philogano's ‘What hast thou done with my son villain?’; Vincentio's ‘Tell me, thou villain, where is problem solving skill queen annes school my son … ?’ with the same expressed fear that the son has been murdered by his former servant. Another is Gascoigne's Philogano to his own servant: ‘Do you not know me?’ ‘As farre as I remember Sir, I never saw you before’; Shakespeare's Vincentio: ‘What, have you forgot me?’ ‘Forgot you? No, sir. I could not forget you, for I never saw you before in all my life.’ This last example, with its improvement on Gascoigne in its colloquial tone and the balance of its calculated repetitions, is sufficient warning against equating Shakespeare with his sources. It is also noticeable how he avoids the traps into which others fall: he will not slow up the scene just discussed, for instance, or falsify its tone, by introducing passages of self-pity amounting to attempted pathos, such as ‘Alas, who shall relieve my miserable estate? to problem solving skill Ashbury College whom shall I complaine? … Alas, you might have some compassion of mine age …’. Nevertheless it remains true that it is the Gascoigne kind of comedy that he is writing in the Bianca scenes; and cheap essay writing service lord wandsworth college, (although a few caveats to this judgement will be entered later, in the general discussion of the style) he does not attempt to alter that kind by elevating or enriching the language. problem solving skill Ashbury College! It would not have been an improvement for Bianca to what not to write in a college essay macromedia university for media and communication speak or be described in genuinely romantic terms; on the contrary, she must be seen, at first, as nothing but the conventional heroine sought by problem solving skill Ashbury College, the hero of fiction, and in this capacity she will be contrasted with another type of woman, at first much less attractive, her spirited ‘real-life’ sister Kate. Shakespeare is admissions essay help ics international community school not content, however, to leave it at that. He does not merely contrast one sister with another: he uses the younger as part of the explanation of the acquired shrewishness of the problem solving skill Ashbury College elder, and so—for better or worse—also uses Bianca in a. (The entire section is 12662 words.) Start your 48-hour free trial to problem solving skill Ashbury College unlock this resource and thousands more.